Service dogs. Description, features, training and breeds of service dogs

Service dogs - These are animals that have undergone special training and are able to purposefully and successfully act alongside a dog handler, in some cases, independently. Service dogs can be security guards, search dogs, guide dogs. There are many professions of the military, police and civilian on the dog’s account.

In demand work dog in the medical field: four-legged doctors are successfully practicing in the field of animal therapy. Dogs have abilities that are not lost, living next to a person and getting food from his hands.

Unique canine smell, dedication, endurance, the best learning ability among animals. Based on these qualities, the man delegated a number of professional tasks to dogs. Created a special group of animals - service dogs.

There is no clear definition of this category of animals. In everyday life, trained dogs with special skills are considered official. Hunting and herding dogs are usually not included in this list, and guide dogs, on the contrary, are classified as service dogs.

Often, service dogs are dogs enrolled in the armed forces, police, and other government agencies. The life of these animals is regulated by normative acts on official activity. For example, there is a law "On Police", a government decree on the use of dogs at customs, and so on.

Service breeds of dogs

Many tasks are better done by certain service dog breeds. A man specifically formed pedigree qualities, that is, he carried out breeding work to breed, for example, guard dogs. Sometimes nature reinforced the properties of a certain orientation. An example is sled dogs that live in the north and have never undergone artificial hybridization.


The breed was bred specifically as a service dog. The appearance of the breed was recorded at the end of the XIX century. Its author is known - a German zoologist, a resident of Thuringia, Karl Dobermann. It is not known what kind of blood pulsates in the veins of the Dobermans, but the result was brilliant.

Doberman is a rather large animal. The growth of males can exceed 70 cm from the floor to the withers, bitches rarely reach 68 cm. With good weight (up to 50 kg) and strong build, the dog looks like an elegant, fast animal. Which, in fact, are. A slender appearance is achieved thanks to the correct proportions and short coat.

The dog was bred as a weapon against intruders. Her task is not to bark and scare away, but to delay and possibly bite. Thanks to the developed intellect, innate devotion to the owner, the dog did not turn into a mindless killer, but became the best guard. Starting from the 19th century, wealthy people trust precisely Dobermans with their property and life.

These animals are especially effective when paired. A male and a female possess not only power, but also tactical dexterity. The attention of the offender is distracted by a male. He acts from the front. From the rear, the bitch attacks and suppresses the enemy. Even firearms directed against dogs are powerless in this case.


The breed is from Germany. Her homeland is the city of Rottweil. The history of its breeding is more ancient than that of the Doberman. Information about the breed appeared in the XVIII century. Originally used as draft force. Transported carts with cow carcasses. Because of what she received the nickname "butcher's dog". Purposeful hybridization was not subjected.

External data and character received as a result of semi-natural selection. Her height rarely exceeds 60 cm; the male Rottweiler weighs approximately 50 kg. The dog has a formidable, unyielding appearance. With a strong muscular system it has a complex character. Not a single trainer will say that working with a rottweiler is simple.

Increased aggressiveness is manifested with weak socialization at an early age. The dog is extremely attached to its owner. Poor perception of a change of ownership. Performing official functions, shows courage and aggressiveness. Can act as a defender, going to the end.

Russian black terrier

This is not just a breed. This is the best that Russian dog handlers and breeders have achieved. Dog owners often call the Russian Black Terrier "Chernysh". It refers to guard dogs. But at its core, it is a universal performer, able to work as a strict guard and a caring nanny.

The breed was bred in the second half of the last century. The work was carried out on the instructions of the Soviet government in the cynological center "Red Star". This suburban cynological organization was considered one of the best in the Soviet Union. Chernysh is a very recently formed hybrid recognized by the breed in our century. The authoritative FCI (Union of Cynologists) approved the standard only in 2010.

German Shepherd

Probably the most sought after, most famous service dogs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The participation of German shepherds in many feature films brought undoubted popularity. But media fame would not have taken place had this breed not had high service properties.

The Germans clearly succeeded in breeding dog breeds. This variety was obtained in southern Germany through breeding work with shepherd, herd dogs. The date of birth of the breed can be considered 1882. In Hanover, the dog Greif was shown at the show. He led the list of purebred German shepherds.

German shepherd is a set of qualities necessary for a service dog. She learns easily and with pleasure. Unpretentious, copes with the difficulties that arise in the process of performing official duties. Reasonably reacts to unforeseen circumstances. The main thing is that she has a great scent; she is courageous and devoted to a person.

Caucasian Shepherd Dog

The ancient breed. Its roots date back to the Molossoids, that is, large dogs known since the times of Ancient Rome. Caucasian Shepherd Dog is a breed of natural breeding. She acquired her working qualities by grazing animals, protecting people and homes. Service dog in the photo often represented by the formidable Caucasian shepherd.

With a height of 75 cm, it gives the impression of a large, powerful animal, especially since its weight reaches the weight of an adult man. The dog is bold to the point of madness, incredulous and extremely loyal to the owner. All these qualities make her a great guard. For an attacker to abandon his plans, it is enough for him to see a Caucasian shepherd or hear her voice.


Dog Training

A dog handler who prepares a dog for one or another type of activity should be a zoologist, zoopsychologist, veterinarian, love dogs and thoroughly know the subject area for which the animal is trained. That is, a multifaceted educated specialist with decent work experience is involved in working with the dog.

Dog Training - This is a more complex process than the development of conditioned reflexes. When training a dog, the cynologist relies not only on the physiology of the animal, but also on its character and intelligence. Therefore, the main methods of training - mechanical, flavoring, imitative - work, but not completely.

Complex skills are taught with a more subtle approach to dog training. When training dogs, usually not very complex rules are followed. They increase the effectiveness of the dog handler.

  • Observe the first principle of any training: from simple to complex.
  • Before the training process begins, you need to accustom the animal to yourself and feel the features of its behavior, to find out its prevailing reactions.
  • Before each lesson, its purpose is determined. In the process of training, the trainer achieves this goal.
  • The same action must be performed on the same command. The command cannot be changed, but the intonation of the given command may vary.
  • The dog should learn with pleasure. Training should not turn into flour for the animal and canine.
  • Dog handler is strict, but fair. With this slogan you can end the general rules of training

Departmental documents regulate not only training methods and dog training programs, but also the testing of the knowledge and skills of the trainer himself. His talent and experience subsequently translates into successful performance of official tasks.

The use of service dogs

At the initial stage of domestication, hunting and shepherding tasks were assigned to the dogs. With the advent of the era of ancient wars, dogs were taken into service. In the Roman army in the first line stood the legionnaires holding the ferocious Molossians. These same dogs entered the arenas of city circuses for battle with gladiators.

Nowadays, in fact, use of service dogs little has changed. Although people began to use dog smell more than fangs and viciousness. The dog profession is the most popular. Dogs smell objects or people by smell. The most responsible service for animals working with explosives.

In the army and police units, these dogs work in mine clearance units. Together with border guards and customs officers, animal detectors detect the illegal transport of dangerous substances. Helping the security services, they find explosive devices made and planted by terrorists.

In the wars of the last century, experience was gained not only in mine clearance, but also in the use of dogs as live mines. This is certainly a cruelty to the animal. But the sacrifice of one’s life for the sake of human life is one form of canine service. Speaking of self-sacrifice (unconscious), they usually remember not only the military, but the dogs that give their health and life to science.

It is unlikely that the inhabitants of dog kennels at various medical institutions, in particular, at the Pavlov Institute, near St. Petersburg, are considered service dogs. But they are staffed by these medical and scientific centers. Used for the same purposes as the military and police animals: save human life.

Service dogs

Dogs that perform official functions, but belong to a specific person, are kept at the owner’s house. Home maintenance is divided into apartment and aviary. The arrangement of animals in both cases does not cause difficulties.

To ensure that the existence of animals enrolled in the state institutions is comfortable enough, they are placed in service dog kennel, the arrangement of which is stipulated by departmental instructions. Dogs outside working hours sleep and rest in open-air cages. The area of ​​the building is usually 9 - 10 square meters. m. This is enough to place a cabin (booth) measuring 2 by 1.8 m in the aviary. The remaining part of the aviary is considered a range.

Several aviaries are combined into a block. The number of blocks depends on the scale of the cynological center. All of them are installed in a protected area. There are also a kitchen and other utility rooms. The territory with enclosures should not be located near busy roads and factories. That is, the place should be quiet, without industrial noise and odors.

Service Dog Feeding held twice a day. Dog diets consist of freshly prepared foods or dry prepared foods. Norms are established by departmental instructions. The dog’s diet is strict. It must be balanced, the products must be fresh, cooked in the proper conditions. Re-use of uneaten food is strictly prohibited.

A dog that is supposed to stay in an aviary can change housing. Service dogs possibly at the dog handler's place of residence. This requires the permission of the cynological authorities and the availability of suitable conditions. In such cases, budget money is allocated for dog food.

Interesting Facts

Among the dogs there are legendary animals. For example, a rescue dog named Barry in the Alps discovered and rescued about 40 lost travelers who were lost in the snow. Barry is traditionally considered a St. Bernard, but such a breed at that time did not yet exist.

Barry lived in the monastery of St. Bernard, where St. Bernards were subsequently withdrawn. Noteworthy is an unusual way of human gratitude. Noting the merits of the four-legged rescuer, an effigy was made from the skin of Barry and exhibited at the Berne Museum of Natural Sciences.

Many remember Squirrel and Strelka - dogs that survived 17 turns in August 1960 in the compartment of the Sputnik-5 ship and returned to Earth. Then they became the subject of medical research. Flying into space did not affect the health of dogs. They lived their life at the Institute of Space Medicine.

It is worth mentioning that many dogs were preparing for flights. They went through a difficult path of training and testing. No one recalls the dogs Chaika and Chanterelle. They were the first, Belka and Strelka their doubles. The pioneers were not lucky. The fate of Chaika and Chanterelle was tragic: in the first seconds of the flight, the Sputnik-4 rocket exploded.

In the field of medicine, in addition to therapeutic, dogs can solve diagnostic problems. Every disease has a smell. More precisely, the body of a sick person generates a specific aroma. He is so weak that man is not perceived. The dog feels it and reacts. As a result, oncology is detected in the early stages. Diagnoses made by dogs are confirmed in 90% of cases.

In the battles and lulls of the Great Patriotic War, outbred and thoroughbred dogs of various professions proved to be heroes. Four-legged trained to detect mines worked quite a bit. Only one of all was awarded a medal. The shepherd, with the nickname Djulbars, popular at that time, received the honorary award "For Military Merit."

When the war actually ended, Djulbars was wounded during another mine clearance. At the direction of the Commander-in-Chief, he was included in the list of participants in the victory parade. Dzhulbarsa carried in his arms in the ranks on Red Square. There is a legend that the uniform of the Supreme Commander became the horse-cloth when carrying the dog.

Recently, olfactory expertise has entered judicial practice. That is, as evidence in court, data from an odor sample taken by detection dogs are accepted. In 2009, following the traces of odors on a balaclava, a person’s participation in a crime was proved. The lawyer of the convict protested. He stated that he could discuss with experts, but he could not argue with dogs. However, the dogs sent the accused to a colony for 5 years.

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